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Narodne manjšine v mednarodnih odnosih, 2. dopolnjena izdaja

Narodne manjšine v mednarodnih odnosih, 2. dopolnjena izdaja « Back

Petra Roter
Obseg: 326 strani / vezava: mehka / leto izida: 2014
ISBN: 978-961-235-692-7

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Knjiga Narodne manjšine v mednarodnih odnosih obravnava problematiko narodnih ali etničnih, rasnih, verskih in jezikovnih manjšin, ki so skozi celotno zgodovino sodobne mednarodne skupnosti predstavljale eno pomembnejših vprašanj, s katerimi so se ukvarjali različni subjekti mednarodnih odnosov, v prvi vrsti države in mednarodne vladne institucije. Manjšine in manjšinska vprašanja so pomembno sooblikovala in vplivala na mednarodne odnose. Po drugi strani pa so različni akterji urejevali manjšinska vprašanja, tudi na multilateralni ravni, tj. z (mednarodno)pravnimi normami in s političnimi zavezami. Vojne na območju nekdanje Jugoslavije in nekdanje Sovjetske zveze, zlasti na Kavkazu, so zgolj utrdile povezanost nacionalizmov, manjšin in manifestnih konfliktov v državah in med njimi ter potrdile potrebo po skupnem upravljanju manjšinskih vprašanj na mednarodni ravni.

Vprašanje položaja narodnih manjšin je posebej pomembno in aktualno tudi za Republiko Slovenijo. Slovenija je namreč ena tistih številnih etnično oziroma narodnostno heterogenih držav, ki imajo manjšine doma, hkrati pa deli večinskega naroda živijo kot narodne manjšine v sosednjih državah. Tako za pripadnike manjšin kot za države je torej zelo pomembno, da dobro poznajo zaveze glede varstva manjšin in tudi možnosti (mehanizme, institucije in različne postopke) za spodbujanje njihovega uresničevanja v praksi. Pričujoča knjiga oboje poglobljeno predstavlja in analizira.

V prvem poglavju avtorica dokazuje tezo o obstoju tako imenovanega problema manjšin, ki ga opredeli kot družbeni konflikt, vendar pokaže, da je problem manjšin mnogo več kot zgolj to in da je tovrstna percepcija manjšin vplivala na odnos mednarodne skupnosti do upravljanja manjšinskih vprašanj. Drugo poglavje obravnava ključna obdobja v zgodovini sodobne mednarodne skupnosti, ko so se državniki ukvarjali z oblikovanjem mednarodnega sistema, hkrati pa so naslavljali tudi manjšinsko problematiko. V tretjem poglavju je podrobno analiziran razvoj novega mednarodnega režima za varstvo narodnih manjšin v Evropi, ki predstavlja okvir za mednarodno sprejemljivo upravljanje vprašanj, ki se nanašajo na narodne manjšine in ohranjanje njihove posebne identitete. Četrto poglavje je namenjeno iskanju odgovora na vprašanje, kdo so pravzaprav narodne manjšine oziroma tisti subjekti, ki jim je namenjeno varstvo manjšin. V mednarodni skupnosti namreč nikoli ni prišlo do soglasja o definiciji (narodnih) manjšin, kar pomeni, da norme o varstvu manjšin obstajajo brez (pravno) opredeljenega nosilca pravic. Vsebina mednarodnega varstva manjšin je nato predmet analize v petem poglavju, medtem ko v šestem poglavju avtorica obravnava številne mehanizme za nadzor nad uresničevanjem manjšinskih pravic. V sedmem poglavju so, skupaj s krajšim komentarjem, ponatisnjeni trije temeljni mednarodni dokumenti na področju varstva manjšin: Okvirna konvencija za varstvo narodnih manjšin, Evropska listina o regionalnih ali manjšinskih jezikih (ki je sicer namenjena varovanju regionalnih ali manjšinskih jezikov), obe pogodbi Sveta Evrope, ter Deklaracija o pravicah oseb, ki pripadajo narodnim ali etničnim, verskim in jezikovnim manjšinam. Slednji dokument je bil sprejet v Generalni skupščini Organizacije združenih narodov, v slovenščino pa ga je prevedla avtorica.

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