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Male otoške države in spremembe podnebja: profil in delovanje skupine Aosis / Analize CMO 8

Male otoške države in spremembe podnebja: profil in delovanje skupine Aosis / Analize CMO 8 « Back

Zlatko Šabič, Petra Pavšič
Obseg: 81 strani / vezava: e knjiga / leto izida: 2011
ISBN: 978-961-235-431-2

Mednarodno varstvo okolja je eno najbolj dinamičnih področij raziskovanja, a hkrati tudi eno tistih, kjer je najtežje doseči mednarodnopolitični konsenz. Z industrijsko revolucijo je prišlo do skokovitega povečanja porabe fosilnih goriv; posledično do večjega izpusta toplogrednih plinov v ozračje in zvišanja globalne temperature zraka. Nekatere države še vedno dajejo prednost industrializaciji pred okolju prijaznimi gospodarskimi politikami. Druge, visokotehnološke (predvsem) evropske države, a tudi male, pogosto revnejše države, v katerih ima industrializacija bistveno večje učinke na gospodarstvo in kvaliteto življenja, si prizadevajo za dvig standardov mednarodnega varstva okolja. Med slednje sodi Zveza malih otoških držav, ki povezuje triinštirideset malih otoških držav in držav z nizkoležečimi obalnimi predeli. Tem zaradi dvigovanja morske gladine grozijo pomanjkanje pitne vode, uničena infrastruktura, intenzivnejši in pogostejši cikloni ter v najhujšem primeru preselitev prebivalstva in popolna poplavljenost otokov. Zveza kot interesna skupina deluje v različnih multilateralnih forumih ter mednarodnih organizacijah, predvsem znotraj Generalne skupščine Združenih narodov. Aktivno vlogo je igrala na pogajanjih za Okvirno konvencijo Združenih narodov o spremembi podnebja, Kjotski protokol in Koebnhavnski dogovor. Svojo majhnost v smislu velikosti ozemlja, števila prebivalcev in plačilne zmožnosti države članice zveze nadomeščajo s svojo aktivnostjo, z dobro pripravljenostjo in poučenostjo, s strokovno pomočjo usposobljenih institucij, povezavo z razvitimi enakomislečimi državami ter vztrajnim zagovarjanjem svojih stališč. Sklicujoč se na načela okoljske etike in znanstvene ugotovitve so v svojih zahtevah neomajne in zahtevajo stroge, točno določene cilje omejitve izpustov toplogrednih plinov v ozračje in jasne časovne roke. Strokovnjaki z okoljskega področja se strinjajo, da ima zveza, kljub večinskemu nesprejetju njenih zahtev, pomembno vlogo v mednarodni skupnosti in je pomembno pripomogla k trenutno veljavni okoljski politiki.

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