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Zahod in muslimanski svet: akcije in reakcije

Zahod in muslimanski svet: akcije in reakcije « Back

Primož Šterbenc
Obseg: 342 strani / vezava: mehka, šivana / leto izida: 2011
ISBN: 961-235-565-4

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V muslimanskem svetu vse od 70. let prejšnjega stoletja poteka proces tako imenovanega ponovnega dviga islama, v okviru katerega se povečuje osebna religioznost ljudi, islam vse bolj vstopa na javno področje ter se krepijo islamistične stranke, vključno z radikalnimi tendencami. Zaradi teh razlogov sociologi religije in drugi družboslovci muslimanski svet pogosto in celo praviloma navajajo kot dokaz v prid argumentu, da je tako imenovana teorija sekularizacije, ki pravi, da modernizacija neizogibno povzroča sekularizacijo, napačna. Vendar pa se zdi, da muslimanskega sveta vendarle ni mogoče tako preprosto izpostavljati v okviru trditve o napačnosti teorije sekularizacije. Na ta svet je namreč mogoče aplicirati koncept kulturne obrambe, ki pravi, da religija lahko ohranja svoj pomen, če dela še kaj drugega, kot zgolj povezuje posameznika z nadnaravnim. V primeru konflikta med dvema skupnostma, ki sledita različnim religijam, se namreč začne krepiti njuna religijska identiteta, vključno z radikalnimi tendencami. V muslimanskem svetu je religija očitno začela pridobivati neko (samo)obrambno, nacionalistično vlogo, saj pretežni del svetovnih muslimanov meni, da Zahod tudi potem, ko so muslimanske države dobile formalno neodvisnost, še naprej ohranja svoj neokolonialni nadzor nad svetom islama. To prepričanje najbolj krepita problematika Palestine in neposredni zahodni vojaški posegi v muslimanski svet. Poleg tega Zahod želi v procesu globalizacije in z neposrednimi vojaškimi posegi muslimanskemu svetu vsiliti neoliberalno ekonomsko paradigmo, ki je v diametralnem nasprotju z družbenoekonomskim pristopom islama. Brez upoštevanja koncepta kulturne obrambe tudi ni mogoče razumeti izbruha destruktivne sunitsko-šiitske državljanske vojne v Iraku po ameriško vodenem vojaškem napadu leta 2003. Državljansko vojno je mogoče pojasnjevati tudi z uporabo konstruktivističnega pristopa k razlagi vpliva religije na izbruh nasilnega konflikta.

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