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Kulturne značilnosti slovenske družbe in njen odnos do varnosti : vojska na stičišču zahtev države, pričakovanj družbe in lastne pohlepnosti

Kulturne značilnosti slovenske družbe in njen odnos do varnosti : vojska na stičišču zahtev države, pričakovanj družbe in lastne pohlepnosti « Back

Janja Vuga Beršnak
Obseg: 180 strani / leto izida: 2021
ISBN: 978-961-235-967-6

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Znanstvena monografija preučuje posameznikov/-čin odnos do vojske, preko odnosa do varnosti in kulturnih značilnosti slovenske družbe. Za opredeljevanje te je v središču Hofstedejeva (2001) klasifikacija kulturnih dimenzij, k čemur avtorica dodaja ugotovitve nekaterih slovenskih avtoric in avtorjev. Odnos do varnosti je tako uokvirjen s slovensko kulturo in pojasnjevan skozi longitudinalne meritve javnega mnenja (SJM). Pri tem sta poudarjena odnos do tveganja, ki je v slovenski družbi izrazito negativen, in percepcija okolja kot varnostnega mehurčka.

Poklicna in profesionalna vojska je osrednji in tudi skrajni mehanizem države za zagotavljanje varnosti, in sicer kot branik pred zunanjimi grožnjami, nadalje je pomemben mehanizem države za  uresničevanje zavez Slovenije na področju varnosti v mednarodnem prostoru. Prav tako pa prevzema pomembno vlogo pri zagotavljanju pomoči in podpore pri odzivanju na naravne in druge nesreče, migracije, zdravstveno-epidemiološke krize ipd.

V središče monografije avtorica postavi dvoje, družben odnos do varnosti in posebne značilnosti vojaške organizacije. Vprašanja, ki se prepletajo skozi monografijo, so: 1) kakšna je slovenska kultura in kako sooblikuje družben odnos do varnosti ter posredno tudi vojske; 2) kako se je v zadnjih 30 letih SV umestila v družbo, kakšna so družbena pričakovanja in s tem povezana evolucija tako funkcionalnega in socialnega imperativa; 3) kako relativno mlada vojska zmore prepoznati vse izzive svoje pohlepnosti ter sedanjega in prihodnjega varnostnega okolja in zadržati pripadnike/-ice v svojih vrstah.

V monografiji so torej prikazani nekateri elementi, ki definirajo vojaško organizacijo (npr. vojaška kultura, spolna reprezentativnost, identiteta, pomen mednarodnih operacij in misij za (pre)oblikovanje vojaške kulture). Avtorica se dotakne vprašanje spola v vojaški organizaciji, ki ni pomembno le z vidika družbene reprezentativnosti, ampak tudi zaradi odnosa med spoloma na področju plačanega dela in skrbstvenih funkcij. Avtorica izpostavi pomen podporne funkcije, ki jo tudi v najskrajnejših primerih prevzema predvsem razširjena socialna mreža in ne vojska. O izzivu usklajevanja med delom in družino avtorica spregovori v tretjem delu monografije, ko predstavi tudi nekatere zdravstvene izzive vojaških družin ter napove poglobljeno razpravo o teh temah v prihodnjih monografijah.

Avtorica ugotavlja, da obstajajo mehanizmi, s katerimi lahko odgovorna politika, strokovnjaki in tudi vojska sama postopoma dosežejo krepitev varnostne kulture. Začenši s transparentno in vključujočo komunikacijo, ki bo družbi približala njeno vojsko, torej vojsko, ki je nastala in deluje z namenom obrambe države in družbe – ljudi, torej. Predvsem pa morajo biti izvoljeni predstavniki oblasti, ki jim je bilo za določeno obdobje zaupano upravljanje  države, sposobni in vešči odprtega in jasnega pojasnjevanja ter utemeljevanja, zakaj so določene naloge vojske potrebne in pomembne za našo državo ter družbo. Ljudi je v takšni komunikaciji treba sprejeti kot razmišljujoče posameznike, ki želijo vedeti, razumeti, razmisliti in se odločiti. Tako bi se  krepili varnostna kultura in odpornost družbe.

»Posebna odlika monografije je, da so vse te številne in različne tematike obravnavane pregledno, sistematično, logično konsistentno in z nenehnim osmišljanjem njihove medsebojne prepletenosti. Avtorica obravnavane tematike analizira kompleksno, na več presečnostih.« (recenzija M. Hrženjak, 2021)     

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