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Pax Franca, Pax Britannica, Pax Americana, Pax Sinica? Primerjalna analiza zunanje politike velikih sil in držav s hitro rastočimi gospodarstvi / Analize CMO 10

Pax Franca, Pax Britannica, Pax Americana, Pax Sinica? Primerjalna analiza zunanje politike velikih sil in držav s hitro rastočimi gospodarstvi / Analize CMO 10 « Back

Ana Bojinović Fenko (ur.)
Obseg: 252 strani / vezava: e knjiga / leto izida: 2011
ISBN: 978-961-235-570-8

Pričujoča večavtorska monografija izhaja iz nedoseženih širokopoteznih ciljev analitične usmeritve v okviru analize zunanje politike – AZP, in sicer primerjalne analize zunanje politike držav, ki je v 60. letih 20. stoletja imela namen primerjati zunanje politike množine držav hkrati in tako zgraditi teorijo obnašanja tipov držav v mednarodni skupnosti. Primarni cilj tega dela je tako ponovni zagon uporabe primerjalne metode v AZP in ponudba ugotovitev v znanstveno in aplikativno uporabo raziskovanja zunanje politike in njenega vodenja (s strani Republike Slovenije – RS). V ta namen so avtorji izbrali analizo zunanjega okolja zunanje politike RS, in sicer zunanjo politiko dveh trenutno najvplivnejših skupin držav v mednarodnih odnosih, tj. velikih sil (Francija, Japonska, Nemčija, Velika Britanija in ZDA) in držav s hitro rastočimi gospodarstvi (Brazilija, Rusija, Indija, Kitajska in Južnoafriška republika – BRICS). Raziskovalni interes ilustrirajo štiri osrednja vprašanja: Katere podobnosti in razlike obstajajo v 1. zunanjepolitičnem procesu, 2. vsebini zunanje politike in 3. strategiji zunanje politike med velikimi silami in državami BRICS in z dejavniki katerega okolja zunanje politike lahko podobnosti/razlike med skupinama in znotraj nje razumemo/pojasnimo? 4. Kakšne so implikacije za zunanjo politiko RS?


Ugotovitve raziskave so: 1. V velikih silah ne prihaja do odstopanja od zapisanih pooblastil akterjev zaradi velikega vpliva povratnih informacij v bolj odprtem sistemu in zaradi lobiranja na mnoge zmogljivosti (vzroki so drugi). Ne moremo trditi, da ima v velikih silah na oblikovanje zunanje politike večji vpliv zunanje okolje, v državah BRICS pa notranje okolje, saj slednje dejavnike notranjega okolja (ekonomska razvitost, politični sistem, tudi kulturni dejavnik) želijo odraziti v vpliv na mednarodno skupnost. Zunanjepolitični proces v velikih silah je bolj odprt kot v primeru držav BRICS, vendar pomembnost ravni analize zunanje politike velikih sil ni odločilno povezana s političnim sistemom države. 2. Notranje okolje (politična kultura, nacionalna zgodovina, družbene vrednote) je bolj odločilno pri oblikovanju vrednot v zunanji politiki kot zunanje okolje v obeh skupinah držav, vendar v primerjavi z velikimi silami države BRICS bolj poudarjajo mednarodnopravna načela, ki izhajajo iz suverenosti držav. Zavezanost velikih sil k izvajanju mednarodnih norm, dogovorjenih v mednarodnih institucijah ni nič bolj zgledna kot zavezanost k tem normam na strani držav BRICS. Velike sile stremijo k dolgoročnejšim ciljem, ki so globalno prisotni, države BRICS pa so bolj kratkoročno ciljno orientirane h gospodarskemu razvoju in prevladi v njihovih regijah. V skupini držav BRICS smo potrdili, da se oblikovanje ciljev teh držav v veliki meri opira na gospodarski razvoj kot glavno zmogljivost. 3. Notranje okolje je pomemben vir strategije zunanje politike velikih sil, a se ob tem evropske sile usklajujejo v okviru SZVP, VB in ZDA pa ohranjata poseben odnos. Strategija zunanje politike velikih sil ne stremi zgolj k uporabi mehke moči. Zunanje okolje ima za izbiro zunanjepolitične strategije držav BRICS odločilnejši pomen kot notranje okolje, tj. pragmatično sodelovanje (zavezništvo) držav BRICS pri njihovem prizadevanju za spremembo mednarodne politične (reforma ZN) in gospodarske ureditve (reforma IMF, pravičen mednarodni ekonomski red). Okrepljena je teza, da države BRICS do velikih sil večinoma uporabljajo sredstva mehke moči (diplomacijo), saj drugih oblik moči, kot je strukturna ali institucionalna še nimajo dovolj. Zunanja politika držav BRICS med sabo enako temelji na sredstvih mehke moči. 4. Potrjena je teza, da se države BRICS povezujejo z namenom vzpostaviti legitimni ali hegemonski položaj regionalnih vodij, vendar pa ne drži, da želijo ohraniti položaj srednjih sil v mednarodnem sistemu, saj ugotavljamo, da želijo ta položaj močno popraviti v lastno korist (novi ekonomski red, ravnotežje institucionalne in strukturne moči). RS mora v luči zunanjepolitičnega delovanja velikih sil in držav BRICS posebno primerno in najbolj neposredno (pre)oblikovati svoje sredstvo ekonomske diplomacije.

 

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