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Razvoj parlamentarizma in funkcije sodobnih (novih) parlamentov

Razvoj parlamentarizma in funkcije sodobnih (novih) parlamentov « Back

Drago Zajc
Obseg: 291 strani / trda vezava/ leto izida: 2019
ISBN: 978-961-235-904-1

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V svojem delu avtor izhaja iz predpostavke, da je parlamentarizem oblika moderne demokratične vladavine v kateri se skupni interes oblikuje na podlagi svobodnega tekmovanja posameznih in posebnih interesov. Avtorjev prispevek k razumevanju parlamentarizma je njegov opis razvoja parlamentarizma v Evropi in Ameriki, v katerem je pogosto šlo za splet različnih okoliščin in demokratičnih praks, pa tudi civilizacijskih standardov. Ob prikazu drugih rešitev, ki so izhajale iz različnih protiparlamentarnih ideologij, opozarja, da je ukinitev ali omejitev parlamentarizma pomenila nastop avtoritarnih in totalitarnih političnih sistemov.

Na podlagi te splošne analize avtor prikaže različne oblike omejenega oz. navideznega parlamentarizma in enostrankarskega skupščinskega sistema, ki so se v 20. stoletju vzpostavile v državah, katerih del smo bili Slovenci. Ob tem podaja razloge, zaradi katerih so konec osemdesetih let propadli totalitarni sistemi v srednji in vzhodni Evrpopi, med katerimi so omejevanje človekovih pravic in svoboščin, še posebej svobode političnega združevanja ter pravice do nasprotovanja in tekmovanja na volitvah. Moderni parlamentarni sistem, vzpostavljen po pridobitvi samostojne državnosti, naj bi torej nudil možnosti svobodnega razpravljanja in sprejemanja demokratičnih odločitev.

Avtor se pri analizi delovanja slovenskega parlamenta – Državnega zbora (ob katerem je tudi Državni svet kot predstavništvo funkcionalnih in teritirialnih interesov) posveča vprašanju, koliko so bile v Sloveniji dejansko uresničene institucionalne in kulturne predpostavke sodobnega parlametarizma. Na drugi strani pa v svojem pristopu k proučevanju vloge Državnega zbora uporabi analizo učinkovitosti različnih formalnih in neformalnih funkcij, ki jih moderne predstavniške institucije opravljajo, pri čemer poudarja, da so lahko neformalne funkcije enako pomembne kot formalne (odločevalske). Pri tem opozarja, da so se posamezne funkcije Državnega zbora postopoma in različno razvijale ter dopolnjevale, še posebej po vstopu Slovenije v EU, kar prikazuje z empiričnimi podatki. Avtor zaključuje, da je delovanje vsakega parlamenta pomembno za napredek demokracije.

(iz recenzije dr. Marjana Brezovška)

 

 

 

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